# `ImageMath` Module¶

The `ImageMath` module can be used to evaluate “image expressions”. The module provides a single `eval()` function, which takes an expression string and one or more images.

## Example: Using the `ImageMath` module¶

```from PIL import Image, ImageMath

with Image.open("image1.jpg") as im1:
with Image.open("image2.jpg") as im2:

out = ImageMath.eval("convert(min(a, b), 'L')", a=im1, b=im2)
out.save("result.png")
```
PIL.ImageMath.eval(expression, environment)[source]

Evaluate expression in the given environment.

In the current version, `ImageMath` only supports single-layer images. To process multi-band images, use the `split()` method or `merge()` function.

Parameters
• expression – A string which uses the standard Python expression syntax. In addition to the standard operators, you can also use the functions described below.

• environment – A dictionary that maps image names to Image instances. You can use one or more keyword arguments instead of a dictionary, as shown in the above example. Note that the names must be valid Python identifiers.

Returns

An image, an integer value, a floating point value, or a pixel tuple, depending on the expression.

## Expression syntax¶

Expressions are standard Python expressions, but they’re evaluated in a non-standard environment. You can use PIL methods as usual, plus the following set of operators and functions:

### Standard Operators¶

You can use standard arithmetical operators for addition (+), subtraction (-), multiplication (*), and division (/).

The module also supports unary minus (-), modulo (%), and power (**) operators.

Note that all operations are done with 32-bit integers or 32-bit floating point values, as necessary. For example, if you add two 8-bit images, the result will be a 32-bit integer image. If you add a floating point constant to an 8-bit image, the result will be a 32-bit floating point image.

You can force conversion using the `convert()`, `float()`, and `int()` functions described below.

### Bitwise Operators¶

The module also provides operations that operate on individual bits. This includes and (&), or (|), and exclusive or (^). You can also invert (~) all pixel bits.

Note that the operands are converted to 32-bit signed integers before the bitwise operation is applied. This means that you’ll get negative values if you invert an ordinary greyscale image. You can use the and (&) operator to mask off unwanted bits.

Bitwise operators don’t work on floating point images.

### Logical Operators¶

Logical operators like `and`, `or`, and `not` work on entire images, rather than individual pixels.

An empty image (all pixels zero) is treated as false. All other images are treated as true.

Note that `and` and `or` return the last evaluated operand, while not always returns a boolean value.

### Built-in Functions¶

These functions are applied to each individual pixel.

abs(image)

Absolute value.

convert(image, mode)

Convert image to the given mode. The mode must be given as a string constant.

float(image)

Convert image to 32-bit floating point. This is equivalent to convert(image, “F”).

int(image)

Convert image to 32-bit integer. This is equivalent to convert(image, “I”).

Note that 1-bit and 8-bit images are automatically converted to 32-bit integers if necessary to get a correct result.

max(image1, image2)

Maximum value.

min(image1, image2)

Minimum value.